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IEEE Citation: Reference List

Reference List

The numbered reference list should be placed at the end of the paper. The list is arranged in the order that the references appear in the text. Citations are single spaced with no line space between citations.

General guidelines:

Abbreviations are frequently used. See the IEEE Abreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines document for a list of IEEE publications abbreviations and page 40 of IEEE Editorial Style Manual for common abbreviations of words in references.

Numbers appear in square brackets in a column flush left.

Authors are listed by initials followed by last name (eg. A. G. Harvey). List up to three authors (eg. T. Coolage, F. R. Hodan, and R. J. Wong). For more than three authors, use the first author's name followed by et al. (eg. L. D. Chan et al.)

Editors follow similar rules to authors, with the addition of Ed. for one editor and Eds. for more than one and et al., Eds. for more than three (eg. N. Waterman, Ed. OR P. North and X. Twilling, Eds. OR K. Singh et al., Eds.)

Titles of articles, chapters, conference papers, patents etc. are in quotation marks (eg. "Networked system state estimation in smart grid over cognitive radio infrastructures,"). Titles of books or journals are in italics (eg. International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics,) Note the pattern for upper case letters in the two different types of titles.

DOI (digital object identifyer) is a unique set of characters used to identify things such as electronic documents. It acts in a similar wasy to an ISBN number for books. The International DOI Foundation manages services and registration. If there is a DOI identifyer provided for the item you are citing, add it at the end of the availability statement; for example: [Online]. Available: CRCnetBase, doi: 10.1201/b11897-5

Accessed statement should be added only when citing a resource that is subject to change, such as a web site. For example:  [Website]. Available: [Accessed: Sept. 15, 2014]. If the item is a stable document that is unlikely to be revised, such as a report or a pdf, even if you find it on a website, you do not need to add the access date.

Web addresses should contain no puncuation at the end of the url.

Sample Reference List*:



[1]  A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing by means of transformations, " in Control and Dynamic Systems, Vol. 69,  Multidemsional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.
[2]  G. O. Young, "Synthetic structure of industrial plastics," in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.
[3]  S. M. Hemmington, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.
[4]  N. Osifchin and G. Vau, "Power considerations for the modernization of telecommunications in Central and Eastern European and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU) countries," in Second International Telecommunications Energy Special Conference, 1997, pp. 9-16.
[5]  D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
[6] O. B. R. Strimpel, "Computer graphics," in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., Vol. 4. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, pp. 279-283.
[7]  K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 3rd ed. Boston: Course Technology, 2004.
[8]  M. N. DeMers, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 2005.
[9]  L. Vertelney, M. Arent, and H. Lieberman, "Two disciplines in search of an interface: Reflections on a design problem," in The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design, B. Laurel, Ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990. Reprinted in Human-Computer Interaction (ICT 235) Readings and Lecture Notes, Vol. 1. Murdoch: Murdoch University, 2005, pp. 32-37.
[10]  E. P. Wigner, "Theory of traveling wave optical laser," Physical Review, vol.134, pp. A635-A646, Dec. 1965.
[11]  J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasibility," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.
[12]  M. Bell, et al., Universities Online: A survey of online education and services in Australia, Occasional Paper Series 02-A. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002.
[13]  T. J. van Weert and R. K. Munro, Eds., Informatics and the Digital Society: Social, ethical and cognitive issues: IFIP TC3/WG3.1&3.2 Open Conference on Social, Ethical and Cognitive Issues of Informatics and ICT, July 22-26, 2002, Dortmund, Germany. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003.
[14]  I. S. Qamber, "Flow graph development method," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1387-1395, Dec. 1993.
[15]  Australia. Attorney-Generals Department. Digital Agenda Review, 4 Vols. Canberra: Attorney- General's Department, 2003.
[16]  C. Rogers, Writer and Director, Grrls in IT. [Videorecording]. Bendigo, Vic.: Video Education Australasia, 1999.
[17]  L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman. Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.
[18]  D. Ince, "Acoustic coupler," in A Dictionary of the Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. [Online]. Available: Oxford Reference Online, [Accessed: May 24, 2005].
[19]  H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].
[20]  P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities," Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
[21]  A. Holub, "Is software engineering an oxymoron?" Software Development Times, p. 28+, March 2005. [Online]. Available: ProQuest, [Accessed May 23, 2005].
[22]  H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive networks," M.S. thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
[23]  “AlphaCom Communications introduces VMSK technology,” The Business Journal Online, May, 2000. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: May 2, 2000].
[24]  J. Riley, "Call for new look at skilled migrants," The Australian, p. 35, May 31, 2005. Available: Factiva, [Accessed May 31, 2005].
[25]  European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI TR-101-190, 1997. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 17, 1998].
[26]  J. Geralds, "Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,", para. 2, Jan. 31, 2001. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 12, 2004].
[27]  W. D. Scott & Co, Information Technology in Australia: Capacities and opportunities: A report to the Department of Science and Technology. [Microform]. W. D. Scott & Company Pty. Ltd. in association with Arthur D. Little Inc. Canberra: Department of Science and Technology, 1984.
[28]  “A ‘layman’s’ explanation of Ultra Narrow Band technology,” Oct. 3, 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Dec. 3, 2003].

 *this reference list is the sample reference list in Murdock University's IEEE Style guide.