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IEEE Citation: In-text, Tables & Figures, & AI

Generative AI Citation

Currently, IEEE has not provided guidance on citing generative AI. For now, practice is that generative AI content absolutely should be cited and can be considered 'private communication' as it is difficult to recreate. Private communication is not added to the reference list but it is cited in-text.

Please see the University of Victoria's excellent general information on AI and citation information and examples specific to IEEE.

Please also see McMaster University's latest IEEE recommendations for citing generative AI.

In-text Citations

For in-text citations in IEEE, provide the number, in square brackets, that refers to the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper. The detailed citations in the reference list/bibliography at the end of the paper are in numerical sequence corresponding to the order that they appear in the paper. Once a source has been cited, use the same number in all subsequent in-text references.

Page numbers are added, if your source has page numbers, to the reference in the reference list when quoting or when referring to a specific detail. Square brackets are placed after the quotation marks and before the punctuation.

If you are referring to several references, include each numbered reference, separated by commas, when not sequential [3,6,7] and ranges, separated by a dash, where applicable [12-14].

Quotations and Paraphrases

IEEE guidance is not entirely clear about adding page numbers, sections, etc. to an in-text citation. Some guides suggest adding the page numbers to the citation in the reference list,; however, the alternative is to add this information to the in-text citation as shown below in the examples.

Short quotations

For quotes (exact word for word copy) that are less than three lines, enclose the quotation in double quotation marks (" ").

Ashby believes that, “The typical person understands the physical world more intuitively than he understands the electrical one” [1, sec. 12].


According to Ashby [9, p.3], the physical world is easier to understand intuitively than the electrical world.

Long quotations

For quotations that are three lines or longer, use an indented block quotation without the quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces from the left margin.

Hunter notes that:

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (UNOOSA) is an international agreement brokered by the United Nations that came into force in 1976. It provides that the launching state should furnish to the United Nations, as soon as practicable, detailed information on certain launches into outer space [2, pp. 132-133].

Adding pages/sections to the  Reference List Citation

[7] British Columbia Land Surveyors, “Survey and Plan Rules,” version 1.2, sec. 2-4, Nov. 14, 2019. [Online]. Available:


Tables and Figures

Tables provide data and/or information in a grid with rows and columns. Figures are any illustrations that are not tables such as graphs, charts and photographs.

TABLES: Tables are labeled above the table in capital letters. The first line, centred over the table, will be TABLE plus the sequential number of the table as it appears in your paper in roman numerals. The second line, also centred and in capital letters, is the descriptive caption for the table. Use additional lines if required to keep the title over the table and indented on both sides.



FIGURES: Figures are labeled below the figure, mostly in lower case letters, also centred. The figure number and the descriptive caption for the figure is on the same line. Use additional lines if required to keep the title under the figure and indented on both sides. Figure is abbreviated to Fig. and is followed by the sequential number of the figure as it appears in your paper.


Fig. 4.  Interconnection between various components.

Place a citation number in square brackets directly after you mention the table or figure in your text. The corresponding entry in your reference list will follow the format for the type of source that the table or figure is from (a book, a journal article, a website etc.)


In-text citation:

Many factors must be considered in order to avoid fracturing, including the properties of the materials shown in Table I [11].


Material Young's modulus (GPa) Poisson ratio References


Particle 70 0.3 7
MEH:PPV 11.5 0.3 10
PEDOT:PSS 1.56 0.3 10
P3HT:PCBM 6.02 0.35 14
Glass 69 0.3 15
PDMS 0.003 0.3 16, 17

Citation in reference list:

[11] O. K. Oyewole et al., "Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: models and experiments," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 7, Aug. 2015. [Online]. Available: Applied Science and Technology Source, doi: 10.1063/1.4928729