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Cardiology Technology: Citing

Cite, you must...

    To give credit to authors and acknowledge their ideas (whether you quote them or not).

    To avoid plagiarism.

    To allow others to track  the sources you consulted, so scholars can have conversations about your topic.


"Paw Print Cat Free Photo" by George Hodan is licensed under CC0 Public Domain

Citation Style Guides

citation or reference is the information given in a bibliography or a database about a particular title, which often includes:

  • article title or chapter title
  • periodical title or book title
  • author(s) or editor(s)
  • place of publication
  • date of publication
  • publisher name
  • volume/issue (articles) or edition (books)
  • page range
  • electronic access (URL or DOI)

There are many ways to format citations. The style you choose depends on your field and the requirements set by your Instructor.

Adapted from UWM Libraries

You can often find all the information you need for a journal article citation on the first page of that article.

**click on image to enlarge it**

Adapted from UWM Libraries

This style, recommended by the American Medical Association (AMA), is often used for scholarly writing about medicine or health-related topics.

  AMA manual of style : a guide for authors and editors

  Call Number: R 119 A533 2020 on RESERVE


Date accessed only if DOI is unavailable. URL only if DOI is unavailable.

Article in a Journal 

1. Lastname FM, Lastname FM. Title of article: subtitle of article. Abbreviated Journal Name (or full title if no NCBI NLM abbreviation). Year;vol(issue number):page-page. DOI (if given)

2. Kernozek TW, Knaus A, Rademaker T, Almonroeder TG. The effects of habitual foot strike patterns on Achilles tendon loading in female runners. Gait Posture. 2018;66:283-287. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.09.016

Reference List

Listed in numerical order at the end of the manuscript.

References to material not yet accepted for publication or to personal communications are instead included parenthetically in the text.

In-Text Citation 

Superscript number refers to the corresponding reference in the reference list. 


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Title of article: no capital after colonTitle of Journal, Volume(Issue)Page RangeURL or DOI


Print Article

Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: a pedagogical perspectiveAssessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5)507-516.

Online Article

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patientsHealth Psychology, 24, 225-229doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.225

1. Database Citation Tools

Many library databases have built-in citations tools that auto-create a citation. The major citation styles are available choices in the databases citation tools.

These citations tools should only be considered a starting point, as they may contain formatting errors - always review auto-created citations to ensure they are correct.

2. Citation managers are tools that can help with your research process, including:

Organize and save citations/articles.

Create in-text citations.

Share citations/articles with colleagues.

Generate Reference Lists in a wide range of styles.

with thanks to MCPHS University

Examples of free citation management tools are: Mendeley and Zotero

Citing AI-generated Content in Assignments

Can I use generative AI in my assignment?

  • Always check with your instructor first! Before starting your assignment, confirm with your instructor that you are permitted to use generative AI tools such as ChatGPT. Unauthorized use of generative software may constitute an academic integrity offence.

Do I need to cite content generated by artificial intelligence?

  • Remember to include a citation whenever you incorporate content generated by AI in your assignment. For example, if you paraphrased or quoted text generated by ChatGPT, cite the source in text and in your references list. Neglecting to cite this material may constitute an academic integrity offence. Since your reader can't access the exact AI-generated text, you may also consider including a copy of the text as an appendix, or as part of supplemental materials.

What if I use AI to come up with ideas or an outline for my assignment?

  • As part of using artificial intelligence responsibly and ethically, it is important to be transparent and acknowledge how you have used AI in your work. If you used AI to generate ideas or an outline or your assignment, include a statement in your work indicating which AI tools you used and how you used them. Neglecting to include this statement may constitute an academic integrity offence.

Are there risks to using AI content as a source?

  • Be aware that there is a possibility that the content AI generates is biased, outdated, or false. Always evaluate the information generated by AI tools. Students are responsible for the accuracy, factuality, and truthfulness of artificial intelligence content used to assist with, and in, assessments.

Text generated by an AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT)

Note: AI-generated content may not be considered as an acceptable source for your course work. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor if you are permitted to use it as a source. If you're using ChatGPT and other AI tools for coursework, include a description of how you used AI within your work. For example, you can describe in your introduction how you used ChatGPT to generate an outline for your presentation. When citing AI-generated text, remember to include both in-text and references list citations. For more information, see APA Style's How to cite ChatGPT.

Reference List

Developer. (Version Year). Name of generative AI tool (Version number) [Type of AI Model]. URL of tool

Example: OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 23 version) [Large language model].

In-Text Citation (Quote or Paraphrase)

Remember to include the prompt you used whenever you quote or paraphrase text generated by an AI tool. Since your reader can't access the exact AI-generated text, you may also consider including a copy of the text as an appendix or as part of supplemental materials. If you are including a copy of the generated text, you may refer to it in the body of your text, or as part of the in-text citation such as in the example below.


Given the prompt "What are large language models?" the text generated by ChatGPT described them as "artificial intelligence systems that have been trained on vast amounts of text data, with the goal of understanding natural language and generating human-like responses to text-based inputs" (OpenAI, 2023).

When provided with a follow up prompt of "What are examples of large language models?" ChatGPT identified OpenAI's GPT-3, NVIDIA's Megatron, and Google's LaMDA as some of the examples of large language models (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).

Image generated by an AI tool (e.g., DALL-E, Midjourney)

Note: AI-generated content may not be considered as an acceptable source for your course work. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your instructor if you are permitted to use it as a source. The following citation examples are Seneca Libraries' recommendations.

Reproducing the image in your work

If you are inserting the AI-generated image in your coursework, start with a figure number followed by an image title. Beneath the image, include a note with details about the prompt and the source. Remember to include the full citation in your References List.

Reference List Citation

Developer's Name. (Version Year). Name of AI tool (Version number) [Type of AI model]. URL of tool

Example: OpenAI. (2023). DALL-E (Version 2) [Large language model].

Notes: This citation guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge. Some examples illustrate Seneca Libraries' recommendations and are marked as modifications of the official APA guidelines.

 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. It is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca Libraries. For information please contact When copying this guide, please retain this box.


Citation Managers

  • It's free, so you'll be able to use it forever, even after you leave BCIT.
  • It saves your digital files to your computer and backs them up in the cloud.
  • It works seamlessly with Microsoft Word.
  • It can also be used with Google Docs, LibreOffice, LaTeX, and other text editors.
  • It automates a lot of processes, like attaching PDFs, that require extra steps in RefWorks.

This OSU guide provides an overview of Mendeley along with training options, support and access information for Mendeley.

Some tips from Royal Roads University guide on Mendeley.

ZoteroBib quickly generates a citation and then converts it to APA, MLA, etc.

A comprehensive overview on How To Use Zotero.

This guide provides an overview of Zotero along with training options, support and access information for Zotero.

Some tips: from Royal Roads University guide on Zotero and from University of Wisconsin.

The comparison chart below will help you to examine the different features available and figure out the best option for you.  


  • Free and open source
  • Grab citations as you browse using Firefox, Chrome, orSafari plugin
  • Backup and sync on multiple devices via online account
  • Plugins for Word & LibreOffice
  • Third party mobile apps available


Create account


Help guide


  • Free for everyone
  • Desktop interface for Windows, Mac, or Linux, and iOS app
  • Backup and sync on multiple devices via online account
  • Save and annotate PDFs

Create account


Help guide

Adapted from Toronto Metropolitan University Library Citation Management