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ISEP (International Student Entry): Citing

For English as a Second Language Learners and Faculty.

SIFT - Evaluating online information

Mike Caulfield (Washington State University): SIFT method

Wineburg, Sam and McGrew, Sarah, Lateral Reading: Reading Less and Learning More When Evaluating Digital Information (October 6, 2017). Stanford History Education Group Working Paper No. 2017-A1 , Available at SSRN: or

APA Citation using AI

Reference list: Basic format

Name of Software Company. (Year). Software Title (Version) [Type of software]. URL

It may also be beneficial (or requested by your instructor) to include the prompt from your query. 

Name of Software Company. (Year). Software Title (Version) [Type of software]. Your prompt. URL

Reference list: Example

OpenAI. (2023) ChatGPT (April 10 version) [Large Language model].

In-text citation: Example

(OpenAI, 2023)

When citing ChatGPT and other AI Chatbots, it is recommended to include the transcript of the chat in the appendix

(OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript)

For further details see How to cite ChatGPT on the APA Style blog.


This digital story is intended to help students understand plagiarism, a form of copyright violation. Students are encouraged to discuss the topic with their instructors to gain a clear understanding

The CRAAP Test

Questions to ask when evaluating information:

Currency: The timeliness of the information.
  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Is there a more recent version of this information available?
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • Are the links functional?
Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.
  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?
Authority: The source of the information.
  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? examples: .com .org
Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the content.
  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?
Purpose: The reason the information exists.
  • What is the purpose of the information? Is it to inform, teach, sell, entertain or persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?

adapted from Meriam Library, California State University, Chico

MLA Citation using AI

Works cited: Basic format

"Prompt" prompt. Title of AI. Version, Date of generation,  URL. 

Works cited: Example

“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,

In-text citation: Example

"The green light also symbolizes Gatsby's envy and jealousy of Tom Buchanan" (“Describe the symbolism").

For further details see How do I cite generative AI in MLA style on the MLA Style Centre blog.