When writing a research paper, it is important to cite any sources that you have consulted in your research. Acknowledge any ideas, information or arguments of others, whether they are directly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. Citing sources gives credit to authors for the works you used, provides evidence to make your argument strong and enables the reader to check your sources. Failure to do so may be construed as plagiarism. Plagiarism is the presentation of the ideas of others as one’s own and is a serious academic offence.
Citation information must appear in two places.
The reference list should be on a separate page at the end of the paper. This sheet will be called References (or Reference if there is only one citation). Do not bold, underline or use quotation marks around the heading, References. APA recommends using either a sans serif font such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10 point Lucida Sans Unicode, or a serif font such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Georgia. All entries must be double-spaced. The first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented. List references in alphabetical order by the author’s name or by title if there is no author. Italicize book and journal titles. Include all of the information needed to identify and retrieve the source. For the titles of books, articles, and chapters, capitalize only the first letter of the title and the subtitle. Always capitalize proper nouns and journal titles.
A Note on Electronic Sources
For electronic resources, the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual (2020) suggests using the DOI in reference list citations. When this is not possible, APA suggests writers should add the homepage URL for the journal, or for the eBook publisher.
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