Incorporate quotations that are fewer than 40 words in the text of your paper. Enclose the quotation in quotation marks. Frisch (2008) has stated that “teams should continue to reframe their options in ways that preserve their original intent, be it a higher return on net assets or greater growth” (p. 126).
Quotations that are longer than 40 words should be displayed in a freestanding double-spaced block of text without quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces from the left margin.
Frisch (2008) stated the following:
Teams should continue to reframe their options in ways that preserve their original intent, be it a higher return on net assets or greater growth. When they feel the impulse to shoehorn decisions into an either/ or framework, they should step back and generate a broader range of options. (p. 126)
If the e-book, web pages or websites you are quoting has no pages provide:
1. a paragraph number (count the paragraphs)
Template (Title, paragraph number)
Example (Vancouver City Planning Commission, paragraph 1)
2. provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number
Template (Author, section or chapter, paragraph number or like)
Example (Westwood, chapter 5, overview)
Rule : APA 7th ed. section 8.28 or Direct quotation of material without page numbers
Paraphrasing: putting someone else’s ideas into your own words is an important writing tool. In APA, the in-text citation format is the same as with quotations except that the page number is not required. When paraphrasing, be sure to reword the original as much as you can. Paraphrasing that is too close to the original might be considered plagiarism. Below is an example of an effective and of an ineffective paraphrase.
Original excerpt: When decision failures occur, many executives focus on the issues involved, and they seek to identify the mistaken judgements and flawed assumptions that they made. However, many leaders do not push further to investigate why they made these errors.
Source: Roberto, M. A. (2013). Why great leaders don’t take yes for an answer: Managing for conflict and consensus (2nd ed.). FT Press.
Incomplete paraphrase: When decision errors happen, plenty of executives look at the issues, and they try to identify the mistaken judgements and assumptions that they made. However, many do not go deeper to investigate why they made these mistakes (Roberto, 2013).
Note: The above example might be considered plagiarism, as it retains too much of the original’s words and structure.
Complete paraphrase: Roberto (2013) has argued that business leaders frequently avoid analysis of the ultimate causes of bad decision-making, and are instead too often satisfied with an understanding of proximate factors.