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APA 7 Reference Examples

Coursepacks and Courseware

Previously published articles and book chapters: To cite sources presented in a coursepack or courseware (e.g., Learning Hub), citation would be the same as if you found them yourself. For example, if your Learning Hub course has a link to a published journal article from a BCIT Library database, you would use the appropriate citation style described in the electronic database examples.

Original material: If you are citing original (i.e., unpublished) material presented in a coursepack or on a Learning Hub course site, you should handle it as if it were an anthology compiled by your instructor and published by BCIT. The information on the cover or title page indicates the title of the compilation–probably the course name and number, as in the examples below.

Unpublished material in a coursepack/courseware: single Author


Author, Initial(s). (year). Title of article. In Compiler name (Comp). COURSE number. Course name. BCIT.


Malone, M. (2013). System parameters. In J. Strong (Comp.), BSYS 2061: Business Data Management. BCIT


‘Comp.’ refers to compiler of the course pack or the Learning Hub course site–probably the instructor unless otherwise indicated.


Unpublished material in a coursepack/courseware: no author


Title (date). In Compiler's name (Comp). COURSE number: Course name. BCIT.


System parameters. (2013). In J. Strong (Comp.), BSYS 2061: Business Data Management. BCIT.

Class materials available online


Author, Initial(s). (date). Title [Lecture slides]. Course name. Publisher. course url


Roychowdhury, S. (2013). Cash flow analysis [Lecture slides]. MIT OpenCourseWare: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. /sloan-schoolof-management/15-501-introduction-to-financial-and-managerial- accountingspring-2004


Create a reference list citation that includes enough information for the reader to find the materials.

Class materials unavailable online


Materials unavailable online include class notes, handouts, and PowerPoint slides on the Learning Hub.

These should be treated as personal communications since they cannot be accessed by someone outside the class. The essential components of a personal communication are the initials and the surname of the ‘author’ (e.g., instructor, materials creator, etc.) and a precise date (if possible). Only cite in-text; there is no reference list citation.

Here is an example of an in-text citation:

as noted by Smith (personal communication [class lecture], 2016).